What is Foundation ?
Foundation are the main reason behind the stability of any structure. The stronger is the foundation, more stable is the structure. The foundation attaches to the footing, which is the real strength of a building. Footing design is specific for each respective building and site to prevent the foundation and the building from sinking into the ground. The foundation is a major part of a building that supports its weight. This should be built with care because it determines how strong and firm your house will stand. A proper foundation distributes load on to the surface of the bed uniformly. This uniform transfer helps in avoiding unequal settlement of the building. Differential settlement is an undesirable building effect.
Foundation engineering applies the knowledge of soil mechanics, rock mechanics, geology, and structural engineering to the design and construction of foundations for buildings and other structures in Grand Junction, CO. A foundation is the lowest part of the building structure. A foundation is defined as that part of the structure that supports the weight of the structure and transmits the load to underlying soil or rock. Foundation of any structure is very important because the safety and reliability of structure depends upon foundation. The foundation has to resist the forces imposed on it by both man and nature, yet it has to be economical and practical. Grand Junction Engineering combine a wealth of experience gained from evaluating thousands of foundations on a wide variety of subsurface conditions.
Foundation engineering, also known as geotechnical engineering, applies theoretical knowledge concerning the behavior of soils and rocks and the construction of load-bearing structures to the planning and construction of foundations for infrastructure. Foundation engineering is the discipline within civil engineering related to the performance of soil mechanics, including their subsurface conditions, determination of the physical, mechanical, and chemical properties that will influence the project under consideration, and the assessment of the risks that may be created by conditions of the site. At the most basic level, a foundation engineer in Grand Junction, CO would consider the kind of soil on which construction is to begin, allowing for the selection of the best material for the job, taking into account variables such as the manner in which such materials would need to be reinforced.
Foundation engineers are responsible for evaluating subsurface and soil conditions and materials, using the principles of soil and rock mechanics. The importance of foundation engineering is most seen on construction sites. It is an important component in building projects in constructions. A Foundation engineer’s top priority must be to recognize differences in soil and rock properties, evaluate the engineering properties of the rock and soil on the site, and determine the suitable design and construction method, which is simultaneously cost effective, durable, and safe. From geotechnical surveys, Foundation engineers will be able to evaluate the stability of the ground, including any slopes and soil deposits, assess any risks and/or contamination, and help to determine the types of foundations and earthworks that will be required.
Grand Junction Foundation engineering is particularly important in minimizing risks to human safety which may occur as a result of unsound foundations. Extrapolating along the lines of risk assessment, site conditions which may have otherwise limited development potential may be mitigated through the improvement of the engineering properties of the soil and rock foundations in themselves.
To sum it up, a Foundation Engineer will look out for your best interests, from assessing foundation quality, to determining the extent of any foundation damage or failure, to providing solutions for any foundation-related issues.
Types of Foundation
Shallow foundations are also called spread footings or open footings. The ‘open’ refers to the fact that the foundations are made by first excavating all the earth till the bottom of the footing, and then constructing the footing. A shallow foundation is provided when soil at shallow depth is sufficiently strong to withstand the load that is likely to be imposed on it. these are used when stable soil of adequate bearing capacity is available relatively near to the ground surface. They are built directly built below the lowest part of the building. There are several kinds of shallow footings: individual footings, strip footings and raft foundations.
Individual footing or an isolated footing is the most common type of foundation used for building construction. These are used when the load of the building is carried by columns. Usually, each column will have its own footing.
Strip foundations are continuous footing which will be constructed at the load bearing masonry construction where walls will be acted as load bearing structure which provide a firm and level base on which the walls can be built.
-Raft or Mat Foundations
A mat footing is a type of combined footing that covers the entire area below a structure and supports ail the walls and columns. This is used to prevent differential settlement of individual footings, thus designed as a single mat (or combined footing) of all the load bearing elements of the structure.
Deep foundations are structural elements that transfer loads through weak, compressible soils to underlying competent soils or rock. These are used when the soil available relatively near to the ground surface is unstable and has inadequate bearing capacity.
A pile is basically a long cylinder of a strong material such as concrete that is pushed into the ground so that structures can be supported on top of it. This is also used to prevent uplift of structure due to lateral loads such as earthquake and wind forces.
Caissons are hollow substructures designed to be constructed on or near the surface and then sunk as a single unit to their required level. It resists loads from structure through shaft resistance, toe resistance and / or combination of both of these.
This is used in areas that have either clay or sandy soils because these soils normally offer weak foundations, so you need to use a lot of concrete, cement and aggregate to create a strong foundation.